By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass resembling cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to helpful compounds has attracted all over the world curiosity for development sustainable societies. First, the present state of affairs of this sizzling learn region has been summarized good within the normal advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to get to grips with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding construction of glucose from cellulose by utilizing an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that's one of many optimum yields ever mentioned. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that susceptible acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that is markedly diverse from mentioned catalytic platforms that require robust acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been constructed. the mix of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis permits the creation of N-acetylated monomers in strong yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic platforms validated during this thesis are special within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic experiences in line with characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts in the course of the reactions. the consequences may be invaluable for readers to layout and boost new catalysts and response systems.
Read or Download A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering PDF
Best industrial & technical books
This e-book provides new and particular points within the box of polysaccharides and their derivatives instructed to be used in drugs and pharmacy. whilst the points built during this e-book could be worthy to designing new structures for medicines supply, immunomodulation, and new fabrics in accordance with polysaccharides remoted from varied resources and their derivatives.
Smoking reasons and contributes to various human ailments, but as a result of huge variety of in all probability damaging compounds in cigarette smoke -- virtually 5,000 chemical compounds were pointed out, setting up the hyperlink among smoking and sickness has usually proved tricky. This impartial and scientifically exact evaluate of present wisdom starts with an outline of the chemical elements in cigarette smoke, their destiny within the human physique, and their documented poisonous results on a number of cells and tissues.
Holding velocity with present tendencies in solvent creation, this quantity builds upon its prior version with broader assurance of secure dealing with practices, future health results, actual homes, and chemical synthesis routes to a couple of an important natural solvents utilized in the chemical and allied approach industries.
This e-book seems to be again on thirty-five years of microwave (MW) chemistry and explains how the appliance of the MW process turned an essential component of R&D, finally turning into well-known in undefined. additional, it info how MW chemistry has passed through a dynamic improvement long ago 3 a long time, one pushed by way of the arrival of more and more refined expert MW reactors instead of the kitchen MW ovens utilized in previous years.
- Phosphoric Acid Purification, Uses, Technology, and Economics
- Transport Processes in Pharmaceutical Systems (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences)
- Advanced Cleaning Product Formulations, Volume 3
- Industrial Color Testing
- Applications of Enzymes to Lignocellulosics
- Chemistry and Mode of Action O
Extra resources for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
Hick SM, Griebel C, Restrepo DT, Truitt JH, Buker EJ, Bylda C, Blair RG (2010) Mechanocatalysis for biomass-derived chemicals and fuels. Green Chem 12(3):468–474 108. Meine N, Rinaldi R, Schüth F (2012) Solvent-free catalytic depolymerization of cellulose to water-soluble oligosaccharides. ChemSusChem 5(8):1449–1454 109. Shrotri A, Lambert LK, Tanksale A, Beltramini J (2013) Mechanical depolymerisation of acidulated cellulose: understanding the solubility of high molecular weight oligomers. Green Chem 15(10):2761–2768 110.
Mazeau K, Heux L (2003) Molecular dynamics simulations of bulk native crystalline and amorphous structures of cellulose. J Phys Chem B 107(10):2394–2403 36. Fan LT, Lee Y-H, Beardmore DR (1981) The influence of major structural features of cellulose on rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. Biotechnol Bioeng 23(2):419–424 References 33 37. Yabushita M, Kobayashi H, Fukuoka A (2014) Catalytic transformation of cellulose into platform chemicals. Appl Catal B Environ 145:1–9 38. Suzuki T, Nakagami H (1999) Effect of crystallinity of microcrystalline cellulose on the compactability and dissolution of tablets.
The base polymer chloromethyl polystyrene, known as Merriﬁeld’s Fig. 16 Structure of CP–SO3H. 2 Cellulose 19 resin, easily undergoes SN2 reaction at a benzyl position as widely used for connecting peptides and proteins . Indeed, in their synthetic scheme of CP–SO3H, sulfanilic acid nucleophilically attacks a carbon atom at the benzyl position of Merriﬁeld’s resin to form a C–N covalent bond. Besides, leaching of both Cl‾ and SO24‾ species was detected by ion chromatography after hydrolysis of cellulose using CP–SO3H in the author’s test, and this was possibly due to SN2 reaction at the benzyl position of CP–SO3H by water molecules .