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By Friederike Moltmann

Summary items were a valuable subject in philosophy considering that antiquity. Philosophers have defended a number of perspectives approximately summary gadgets by way of beautiful to metaphysical issues, issues concerning arithmetic or technological know-how, and, now not on occasion, intuitions approximately average language. This ebook pursues the query of ways and even if typical language makes it possible for connection with summary items in an absolutely systematic method. through making complete use of latest linguistic semantics, it offers a miles higher variety of linguistic generalizations than has formerly been considered in philosophical discussions, and it argues for an ontological photograph is particularly varied from that regularly taken without any consideration via philosophers and semanticists alike. connection with summary items equivalent to houses, numbers, propositions, and levels is significantly extra marginal than in most cases held. as an alternative, traditional language is quite beneficiant in permitting connection with particularized houses (tropes), using nonreferential expressions in obvious referential place, and using "nominalizing expressions," comparable to quantifiers like "something." connection with summary items is accomplished as a rule in simple terms by means of 'reifying terms', corresponding to "the quantity eight."

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B. Mary started eating the bread. By contrast, coercion could not possibly influence the applicability of predicates or readings of predicates with kind-referring terms as in (54a–c). ” The sentences have only the one implausible reading. We can thus conclude that an ontological account of kinds as property-resistant entities fails both for philosophical and for linguistic reasons. There is a non-ontological variant of the account that may appear less problematic. I will call it the intensional account of kind terms.

The intensional account of kind terms thus appears rather untenable for linguistic reasons. REFERENCE TO UNIVERSALS AND PLURAL REFERENCE TO PARTICULARS 27 6. A plural-reference account of kind terms Given the problems for the ontological and the intensional account of kind terms, I will propose a third account, an account that assimilates kind terms to plurals, on a certain view of the semantics of plurals. Kind terms on that view are plural terms standing for the plurality of all the instances of the kind in question.

Again, the same nouns with a demonstrative determiner and without a complement will yield terms referring to universals, that is, type demonstratives: (44) a. John never saw this shape. b. John never saw this color. These observations justify the following generalization. Trope-describing nouns come in two variants: a relational variant and a non-relational variant. The relational variant expresses a relation between particular tropes and their bearers, whereas the nonrelational variant expresses a property of kinds of tropes.

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