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They are also known as index-guiding holey fibres (HFs), photonic band gap fibres (PBGFs) and photonic crystal fibres (PCFs). MOFs offer immense flexibility in fibre design, and the large refractive index contrast between glass and air makes it possible to produce wavelength-scale features that offer a range of interesting properties. Page 18 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Photonics for Information and Communication Photonic materials and devices Technical trends 2 Glass MOFs are made using a method based on capillary stacking with successive drawing to produce a structure of the appropriate dimensions.

This is possible by bombarding small quantum dots with a laser source. The main advantage of a white LED is that it consumes much less power and lasts much longer than an incandescent bulb. QD lasers are used to make low-cost broadband infrared sources for optical Page 39 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Photonics for Information and Communication Future outlook and trends in photonics coherence tomography and quantum dots are emerging as the most viable semiconductor technology for future high-performance communication systems.

Laser beams can concentrate energy onto a very small area of material until the material vaporises. Focusing beams or mirrors can be used to obtain the desired hole shapes. Two common methods are percussion and trepanning. Percussion laser drilling Percussion laser drilling uses a rapid burst of pulses; the burst can be controlled using the laser pulse duration, spot size, optics and beam characteristics. A small beam is preferred, which is obtained by choosing a short laser wavelength of a short focal length.

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