By Vernon Ruttan
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Extra resources for Agriculture, Environment, and Health: Sustainable Development in the 21st Century
PARIKH of agriculture demand and supply, aggregates agriculture into just one commodity called consumable protein. , 1988), has a detailed agricultural commodity classification but has been used to simulate only until the year 2000. Fox and Ruttan (1983) have surveyed developing-country food balance projections. 2 Once again these projections do not go beyond the year 2000. A recent Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) study by Brown and Goldin (1992) also does not go beyond 2000.
5). , 1982) do not adequately account for irrigated output. Input intensities do not seem to change in the FAO study on irrigated land across the low, intermediate, or high scenarios. Thus the actual population-supporting capacities must be higher still. The fact that production potential exists does not mean that it will be realized. We need to identify in some detail what is needed to realize these potentials. 8 The "other land" category includes unused but potentially productive land, built-on areas, wasteland, parks, ornamental gardens, roads, lanes, barren land, and any other land not specifically listed under other items.
The entrepreneur will weigh the gains to be derived from recontracting within CONSTRAINTS ON INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION 51 the existing institutional framework against the gains from devoting resources to altering that framework. Bargaining strength and the incidence of transaction costs are not the same in the polity as in the economy, otherwise it would not be worthwhile for groups to shift the issues to the political arena. Thus entrepreneurs who perceive themselves and their organizations as relative (or absolute) losers in economic exchange as a consequence of the existing structure of relative prices can turn to the political process to right their perceived wrongs by altering that relative price structure.