By Gary Haynes
The quantity includes summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties referring to the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of in most cases huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the United States. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has ended in the advice that foraging people are in charge, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a few of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) topics -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; considering that then loads of cutting edge, interesting new examine has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. assorted chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied by means of reports of strong isotopes and anatomical/physiological features reminiscent of progress increments in large and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic learn approximately large-mammal biology, the purposes of courting the way to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies touching on human searching of enormous mammals.
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Extra info for American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene
Ohio J Sci, Abstracts of 95th Annual Meeting, April 25–27, Toledo Dyke AS, Andrews JT, Clark PU, England JH, Miller GH, Shaw J, Veillette JJ (2002a) The Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat Sci Rev 21(1–3):9–31 Dyke AS, Moore A, Robertson L (2002b) Revised North American deglaciation maps. Paper presented at Annual Meeting Geological Society of America, Oct. 27–30, Denver, CO Elias SA, Short SK, Nelson CH, Birks HH (1996) Life and times of the Bering land bridge.
The corridor seems now to have opened some time prior to 11,000 BP (contra Arnold, 2002). Recent tentative identification of elk (wapiti, Cervus elaphus) antler “foreshafts” (their presumed function) in the Anzick infant burial in Montana suggests that elk and other large mammals could have traversed the corridor at the same time that humans did. Two dates for the antler tools are both 11,040 BP (±40 and ±60) (Morrow and Fiedel, 2006). Even if large mammals were deterred from migration for several centuries by wet and cold conditions on the newly deglaciated landscape, human migrants could have survived on waterfowl, which they had already been in the habit of taking in central Alaska (Fiedel, 2007).
Science 186:638–640 Long A, Martin PS, Lagiglia HA (1998) Ground sloth extinction and human occupation at Gruta del Indio, Argentina. Radiocarbon 40:693–700 MacFadden BJ (2005) Diet and habitat of toxodont megaherbivores (Mammalia, Notoungulata) from the late Quaternary of South and Central America. Quat Res 64(2):113–1244 MacPhee RDE (2003) The Wrangel date gap and other evidence of widespread megafaunal collapse in northern Asia during the early Holocene, Paper presented at 3rd International Mammoth Conference, May 23–29, Dawson City, Yukon MacPhee RDE, Marx PA (1997) The 40,000-year plague: Humans, hyperdisease, and first-contact extinctions.