By Robert Pease
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The 5th version of Grounding and protective has been revised all through. fabric has been extra on transmission strains, radiation and revealed circuit layout, all of that are of significant present curiosity as a result smaller dimensions of digital units.
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Extra info for Analog Circuits (World Class Designs)
The results of a MATLAB crossover frequency and phase margin test are shown in Figure 1-29. Note that by adding the low-pass ﬁlter, we’ve signiﬁcantly improved the gain margin of this circuit. Results show: • • • Crossover frequency: 3993 radians/sec (635 Hz) Phase margin: 85° Better-behaved step response, as shown in Figure 1-30. w ww. ) Figure 1-30: Step response, Attempt #2. Example 1-4: Photodiode ampliﬁer A photodiode ampliﬁer is shown in Figure 1-31a. The photodiode puts out a current proportional to the light hitting it, and the transimpedance connection of the op-amp converts this photodiode current into an output voltage.
For large loop transmission (af Ͼ Ͼ 1), as we’ve shown before, the closed-loop gain A ഠ 1/f. For small loop transmission (af Ͻ Ͻ 1), the closed-loop gain is approximately a(s). If we plot a(s) and 1/f on the same set of axes, we can ﬁnd an approximation for the closed-loop gain as the lower of the two curves, as shown in Figure 1-5. Stability So far, we haven’t discussed the issue regarding the stability of closed-loop systems. There are many deﬁnitions of stability in the literature, but we’ll consider BIBO stability.
What’s going on here? The Bode plot of the loop transmission phase and magnitude tells the story. Although the phase margin is ﬁne, the gain margin isn’t so great, due to the underdamped pole pair. In order to help this oscillation problem, we might attempt to add a pole above crossover to damp out the underdamped pair. Let’s try adding a pole at 5 ϫ 104 radians/ second to damp the complex poles at 105 radians/sec. 77 deg. 8°. ) Figure 1-28: Step response, Attempt #1. 204 deg. 6 rad/sec) 0 Ϫ20 Ϫ40 Ϫ60 Ϫ80 Ϫ100 Ϫ100 Ϫ150 Ϫ200 Ϫ250 Ϫ300 Ϫ350 104 105 Frequency (rad/sec) Figure 1-29: Plot of the loop transmission magnitude and phase, Attempt #2, showing crossover frequency of 3993 radians/second and a phase margin of 85°.