By M.V. Nermut and A.C. Steven (Eds.)
Animal Virus constitution presents a complete, cutting-edge precis of the constitution, molecular composition, and critical antigenic and organic homes of every at the moment famous family members of animal viruses. details deriving from electron microscopy, laptop photograph processing and X-ray diffraction is built-in systematically with biochemical information into 3-dimensional molecular types of viral structure. a quick account of virus/cell interplay and pathogenicity completes each one bankruptcy.
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Additional info for Animal Virus Structure
1974) A negative staining-carbon film technique for studying viruses in the electron microscope: I . Preparative procedures for examining icosahedral and filamentous viruses. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 47, 361-383. W. and Wildy P. (1979) An historical account of the development and applications of the negative staining technique to the electron microscopy of viruses. J. Microsc. 117, 103-122. A. (1978) Electron microscopy of specific proteins: three-dimensional mapping of ribosomal proteins using antibody labels.
M = M-protein or ‘core shell’. Ba, virus surface revealed by freeze-fracturing (-etching) in buffer or water; b, virus core (VC) exposed by freeze-fracture in glycerol (or within cells); c, inner face of virus capsid after the core has been fractured away; d , cross-fractured virus particle with nucleocapsid (NC) ‘rods’. The sandwich is separated by means of a double replica device (Nermut and Williams, 1977) and the fracture faces (or etch faces) are shadowed and replicated. Carbon replicas can be easily floated off the mica, but problems can arise with the copper plates.
1985) Viral Membranes. In Virology, Ed. N. Fields, pp. 45-67. Raven Press, New York. V. V. J. HOCKLEY2 and H. 1. Negative staining Negative staining is one of the most useful methods for the visualization of virus particles and is therefore frequently used in both research and clinical diagnosis (Horne and Wildy, 1979). Its principle is simple. Virus particles are mixed with a heavy metal salt solution and thus after drying become ‘embedded’ in highcontrast material, which dominates the scattering of electrons so that virus particles look bright within a dark background.