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By by Birendra N. Pramanik (Editor), A.K. Ganguly (Editor), Michael L. Gross (Editor)

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1 ppm). Shipkova et al. (34) used an HPLC instrument coupled with a magnetic sector mass spectrometer to analyze impurities and degradation products in the oligosaccharide antibiotic everninomycin. Takahashi et al. (354) demonstrated exact mass measurements by using a novel multiple sprayer nanoelectrospray source and a magnetic sector mass spectrometer. 7). Exact mass measurements of fragment ions generated by in-source CID were reported by Starrett and DiDonato (347). Selectedion monitoring at high resolving power has been demonstrated as a method for reducing background interferences and improving target compound selectivity for quantitative assays of bile acid glucuronides (230) and environmental contaminants suspected to have endocrine-disrupting activity (338).

Zoom scans” can be readily used to obtain resolving power sufficient to determine the charge state for multiply charged peptides, but that which can be obtained with commercially available ion traps tends to be much less than that obtained by FTICR. Furthermore, high resolving power does not always imply mass accuracy (413). Shifts in the measured frequencies of trapped ions can occur due to space-charge effects and other electric field effects. In FTICR, these frequency shifts are limited by the presence of the powerful static magnetic field, making exact mass measurements possible.

Because APCI is a chemical ionization process, fragmentation is much more common than in ESI. The APCI solution passes through a hot vaporizing chamber at much higher temperatures than those used for thermal desolvation in ESI. For example, the JEOL ESI source uses a typical ESI desolvation temperature of ~200°C, whereas the JEOL APCI source uses a vaporizing chamber temperature of up to 500°C. Therefore, ESI may be better suited for the analysis of thermally labile species. 12000 ch_01 1/17/02 2:47 PM Page 34 34 Cody Also, a much higher minimum flow rate is required for APCI than for ESI.

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