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However, these circuits lack some of the important properties of MOSFET-C networks to be discussed later, such as insensitivity to parasitic source/drain capacitances. A further insight into the MOSFET-C concept can be attained by the following observation. We may regard the topologically symmetrical nodes as pairs and analyse the differential-mode and common-mode components of the respective voltage–signal pairs with respect to the quiescent voltage VQ . 2 we have an input node pair with signals Vin and −Vin , a middle node pair with signals Vx and Vx (OA inputs), and an output node pair with signals Vout and −Vout .

26) and noting that now the input related vector becomes B = [β1 β2 . . βn ]t , where βj = gaj /gj , j = 1, 2, . . 34) βj Aj n (s) j =1 where Aj n (s) represent the cofactors of A(s). 11 MLF OTA-C filters with input distribution OTA network + _ 18 Design of high frequency integrated analogue filters Transmission zeros can be realised by adjusting βj , that is, gaj . If a specific function is realised, the structures and design formulae can be simplified. In particular, canonical feedback may be used and some of the distribution OTAs may be removed.

A scaling condition concerning mobility and body effects can be derived under which the input stage remains linear [9]. The condition is a function of tuning voltage VB , hence the scaling is possible only for a given transconductance gm of the OTA. The channel length modulation effect of transistors M1a–M4b can be neglected due to the application of current-shunt feedback in the output stage. 2 ␮m AMI ABN CMOS process. The bias current flowing through the input stage is equal to 340 ␮A. All p- and n-channel transistors have their bulks connected to VDD and GND, respectively.

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